Sie hier alle Informationen der FAZ zur syrischen Terroristen-Hochburg Rakka. ihren drei Kindern nach Syrien in die umkämpfte Stadt Raqqa übergesiedelt. Ar-Raqqah, Syrien. Beginnen Sie noch heute mit der Planung für Ar-Raqqah. Erstellen Sie eine Reise, um. Nach dem Sieg über den IS liegt das syrische Raqqa in Trümmern. Ahmad Abdullah verlor durch einen Angriff seine ganze Familie.
Rakka - Stadt in Syrien ohne ISSie hier alle Informationen der FAZ zur syrischen Terroristen-Hochburg Rakka. ihren drei Kindern nach Syrien in die umkämpfte Stadt Raqqa übergesiedelt. Raqqa galt in Syrien als multikulturell und liberal. Dann wurde es zur Kapitale des „Islamischen Staats“ – der Terror ist heute Alltag. Angesichts. Ar-Raqqa (arabisch الرقة, auch ar-Raqqah, kurdisch Reqa, türkisch Rakka) ist die Hauptstadt des gleichnamigen Gouvernements am mittleren Euphrat im Norden von Syrien.
Syrien Raqqa Accessibility links VideoInside the Syrian city of Raqqa after Islamic State's fall
At the same time the SDF, supported by US special forces , were close to capturing the entire al-Mashlab neighborhood. On 10 June, the SDF entered the Roman suburb and were locked "in fierce fighting", while they were reinforcing the western half of Al-Sabahiya.
A spokesman for the US military did not confirm or deny the statements,  the US later confirmed it was using white phosphorus "for screening, obscuring, and marking in a way that fully considers the possible incidental effects on civilians and civilian structures".
By 11 June, 79 civilians reportedly had been killed. On 12 June, the SDF began the process of capturing al-Sinaa and al-Hattin neighborhoods, along with the al-Sinaa industrial zone.
On 14 June, the SDF entered the al-Berid neighborhood in the western part of Raqqa, following intense fighting in which an ISIL suicide bomber was killed.
On 15 June, the SDF captured the al-Sinaa neighborhood and entered the Batani neighborhood. On 18 June, the SDF captured Kasrat Sheyh Juma village, to the south of Raqqa.
On 19 June, ISIL counter-attacked at the old city walls and managed to encircle a group of SDF fighters, among them members of the Elite Forces SEF.
In the course of this operation, the SEF lost its first member in the battle for Raqqa and its fourth in the Raqqa campaign.
By 25 June, the SDF had captured most of the western Qadisiya district, whereupon ISIL launched a major counter-attack, leading to extremely heavy fighting.
By the end of the day, the SDF had also taken control of al-Farkha village to Raqqa's southwest. On 27 June, the SDF launched an attack against the old city, which was repelled by ISIL, though they succeeded in capturing the village of al-Ghota south of Raqqa.
On 28 June, the SDF clashed with ISIL militants near a kindergarten in Ar-Ruda neighborhood in eastern Raqqa, killing eight ISIL fighters. During 1—2 July, SDF fighters cleared the al-Hal market in eastern Raqqa of ISIL militants, while the SDF continued to advance in other neighborhoods of the city with the help of heavy CJTF—OIR airstrikes.
Ratla, a village southeast of the city also fell to the SDF. This was done so that the SDF could finally enter the heavily fortified Old City, while at the same time preserving most of the wall.
The SDF advanced into the Old City, capturing the Palace of the Maidens , albeit encountering heavy resistance.
Meanwhile, the US-backed forces continued to make progress in other parts of Raqqa, reportedly capturing half of the Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik neighborhood,    while a major assault by the Elite Forces managed to retake the al-Sinaa neighborhood from ISIL.
Heavy fighting in the Old City continued through the next two days, and the SDF advances were slow despite heavy airstrikes in their support.
Intense ISIL counter-attacks inside Raqqa and south of the city at Ratla were mostly repelled, though ISIS militants managed to retake a part of the al-Hal market.
Especially intense clashes also took place in the western city, mostly for the al-Bareed neighborhood, as both sides launched repeated attacks in attempts to gain territory.
ISIL suicide attacks also hampered the advance of the Coalition forces. The SDF progress was also reportedly hindered by disputes within the SDF  and the distrust of the locals toward the anti-ISIL Coalition.
Due to ISIL propaganda and long-standing distrust between the ethnic groups in Syria, many of Raqqa's Arabs are wary of the Kurdish forces within the SDF.
Statement of an ISIL fighter in Raqqa to his comrades. The ISIL militants in Raqqa were considered to fight extremely tenaciously, repeatedly launching "vicious" counter-attacks and holding out amid massive bombardments.
Townsend said that the only options for the ISIL fighters in Raqqa were to "surrender or be killed". Even though the SDF eventually prevailed in the former two, the coalition made little to no progress in the eastern and Old City, while casualties among both the SDF as well as the civilian population had risen drastically.
As result, the SDF began to shift its strategy in the east and the Old City, advancing slower and with more caution, in order to minimize further losses and to avoid the destruction of historic monuments, such as the Abbasid al-Atiq Mosque.
Despite these continued counterattacks,  the SDF further advanced against ISIL during the following four days.
By 24 July, the coalition had fully secured the neighborhoods al-Romaniya, Hutteen, Qadisiyah, Yarmouk, Mashlab, al-Batani and al-Sinaa, while having taken control of parts of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, al-Rawda, al-Rumaila, al-Muazzafin, al-Hamra, and Nazlat Shehada, and the old city.
Between 1 and 3 August, the SDF captured most of the Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and Nazlat Shehada neighborhoods and other important locations, thus largely securing southern Raqqa.
These native militants remained, however, due to fear of ISIL's foreign mujahideen. These foreigners wanted to make their last stand at Raqqa, and are ready to kill all who want to surrender.
By 10 August the western and eastern fronts of the SDF linked up in the south and thereby cut off the access to the Euphrates from the ISIL militants.
By 1 September, the SDF had secured almost all of the old city,    though some ISIL holdouts continued to resist in the al-Busariyah alley and the Grand Mosque.
These ISIL forces were finally destroyed with the support of U. Boeing AH Apaches on 2 and 3 September, bringing all of the old city under SDF control.
The coalition forces also advanced into the Al-Morour   and Daraiya neighborhoods, which were captured by 6 September.
Besides these, ISIL pockets of resistance were reported by SOHR in nine mostly SDF-held neighborhoods. On 14 September, the SDF fully secured al-Thaknah, "one of [Raqqa's] most important neighborhoods", after a hour-long battle.
Nevertheless, many ISIL militants refused to consider surrender, and instead launched suicide attacks on coalition forces when their positions became untenable.
The remaining ISIL resistance was centered on Raqqa's north as well as enclaves in the south-west and central city.
Though it was said that ISIL used the civilians as human shields, the activists also said that neither the SDF nor CJTF—OIR took any "extraordinary measures to assist civilians who [were] trying to flee the city", with the United States Air Force instead indiscriminately bombing all who attempted to escape by boat or car.
Such airstrikes did, however, also decisively weaken ISIL's defenses at its last strongholds. Heavy airstrikes by the U. It would spare lives and bring fighting to an end.
The lives of the Arab, Kurdish and other fighters opposing IS would be spared. But it also enabled many hundreds of IS fighters to escape from the city.
At the time, neither the US and British-led coalition, nor the SDF, which it backs, wanted to admit their part. Great pains were taken to hide it from the world.
But the BBC has spoken to dozens of people who were either on the convoy, or observed it, and to the men who negotiated the deal. In a greasy yard in Tabqa, underneath a date palm, three boys are busy at work rebuilding a lorry engine.
They are covered in motor oil. Their hair, black and oily, stands on end. Near them is a group of drivers. Abu Fawzi is at the centre, conspicuous in his bright red jacket.
It matches the colour of his beloved wheeler. He and the rest of the drivers are angry. It was a journey to hell and back, he says.
As soon as we entered, we saw IS fighters with their weapons and suicide belts on. They booby-trapped our trucks. If something were to go wrong in the deal, they would bomb the entire convoy.
Even their children and women had suicide belts on. The Kurdish-led SDF cleared Raqqa of media. Publicly, the SDF said that only a few dozen fighters had been able to leave, all of them locals.
We took out around 4, people including women and children - our vehicle and their vehicles combined. When we entered Raqqa, we thought there were people to collect.
In my vehicle alone, I took people. Another driver says the convoy was six to seven kilometres long. February 5, February 4, February 3, During the Syrian Civil War , the city was captured in by the Syrian opposition and then by the Islamic State.
ISIL made the city its capital in Most non- Sunni religious structures in the city were destroyed by ISIL , most notably the Shia Uwais al-Qarni Mosque , while others were converted into Sunni mosques.
On 17 October , following a lengthy battle that saw massive destruction to the city, the Syrian Democratic Forces SDF declared the liberation of Raqqa from the Islamic State to be complete.
The area of Raqqa has been inhabited since remote antiquity, as attested by the mounds tells of Tall Zaydan and Tall al-Bi'a, the latter being identified with the Babylonian city Tuttul.
His successor, Seleucus II Callinicus r. In Roman times, it was part of the Roman province of Osrhoene but had declined by the fourth century.
Rebuilt by Byzantine Emperor Leo I r. By treaty, the city was recognized as one of the few official cross-border trading posts between the two empires, along with Nisibis and Artaxata.
The town was near the site of a battle in between Romans and Sasanians, when the latter tried to invade the Roman territories, surprisingly via arid regions in Syria, to turn the tide of the Iberian War.
The Persians won the battle, but the casualties on both sides were high. In , the city was destroyed by the Persian Emperor Khusrau I r.
In , during another war with Persia , the future Emperor Maurice scored a victory over the Persians near the city during his retreat from an abortive expedition to capture Ctesiphon.
In the year or , the city fell to the Muslim conqueror Iyad ibn Ghanm. Since then, it has figured in Arabic sources as al-Raqqah.
The treaty allowed them freedom of worship in their existing churches but forbade the construction of new ones. The city retained an active Christian community well into the Middle Ages Michael the Syrian records 20 Syriac Orthodox Jacobite bishops from the 8th to the 12th centuries  , and it had at least four monasteries, of which the Saint Zaccheus Monastery remained the most prominent one.
Ibn Ghanm's successor as governor of Raqqa and the Jazira , Sa'id ibn Amir ibn Hidhyam, built the city's first mosque.
The building was later enlarged to monumental proportions, measuring some 73 by metres by feet , with a square brick minaret added later, possibly in the midth century.
The mosque survived until the early 20th century, being described by the German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld in , but has since vanished. The tombs of several of Ali's followers such as Ammar ibn Yasir and Uwais al-Qarani are in Raqqa and have become sites of pilgrimage.
The strategic importance of Raqqa grew during the wars at the end of the Umayyad Caliphate and the beginning of the Abbasid Caliphate.
Raqqa lay on the crossroads between Syria and Iraq and the road between Damascus , Palmyra and the temporary seat of the caliphate Resafa , al-Ruha'.
Between and , the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur built a garrison city about metres feet to the west of Raqqa for a detachment of his Khorasanian Persian army.
For about 13 years, Raqqa was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, which stretched from Northern Africa to Central Asia , but the main administrative body remained in Baghdad.
The palace area of Raqqa covered an area of about 10 square kilometres 3. Only the small, restored so-called Eastern Palace at the fringes of the palace district gives an impression of Abbasid architecture.
Some of the palace complexes dating to the period have been excavated by a German team on behalf of the Director General of Antiquities.
There was also a thriving industrial complex located between the twin cities. Both German and English teams have excavated parts of the industrial complex, revealing comprehensive evidence for pottery and glass production.
Apart from large dumps of debris, the evidence consisted of pottery and glass workshops, containing the remains of pottery kilns and glass furnaces.
Approximately 8 kilometres 5. It is said to commemorate the conquest of the Byzantine city of Herakleia in Asia Minor in Other theories connect it with cosmological events.
However, the upper part was never finished because of the sudden death of Harun al-Rashid in Greater Khorasan.
After the return of the court to Baghdad in , Raqqa remained the capital of the western part of the Abassid Caliphate. Raqqa's fortunes declined in the late 9th century because of continuous warfare between the Abbasids and the Tulunids , and then with the Shia movement of the Qarmatians.
From the late 10th century to the early 12th century, Raqqa was controlled by Bedouin dynasties. Raqqa experienced a second blossoming, based on agriculture and industrial production, during the Zangid and Ayyubid dynasties during the 12th and the first half of the 13th century.
The blue-glazed Raqqa ware dates from this time. There is a report on the killing of the last inhabitants of the ruins of the city in In the 16th century, Raqqa again entered the historical record as an Ottoman customs post on the Euphrates.
The eyalet province of Raqqa was created. From the s, Raqqa was a place of wintering for the semi-nomadic Arab 'Afadla tribal confederation and was little more than its extensive archeological remains.
It was the establishment in by the Ottomans of the Karakul Janissary garrison, in the south-east corner of the Abbasid enclosure, that led to the revival of the modern city of Raqqa.
The first families that settled in Raqqa were nicknamed ''The Ghul'' by the surrounding Arab semi-nomadic tribes from whom they bought the right to settle within the Abbasid enclosure, near the Janissary garrison.
They used the ancient bricks of the enclosure to build the first buildings of modern Raqqa. They came under the protection of the surrounding Arab semi-nomadic tribes because they feared attacks from other neighboring tribes on their herds.
The Ottomans issued an order to deport them from the Nahid Al-Jilab region to the Raqqa area. The decimation of Isis on Telegram is big, but it has consequences.
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Raqqa News. November 2, April 8, December 3, Everywhere in Raqqa there are traces of an urban society that buckled under jihadi rule and collapsed during the ferocious battle to reclaim it.
Overturned cars protrude at odd angles in the street. An ATM sits ajar, its front blasted off the hinges by explosives. The SDF fighters snatch the flags down wherever they see them.
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