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Austrias Navigation menu VideoReyes de España, los austrias - Los reyes Católicos Austria ist der latinisierte Name Österreichs. Er bezeichnete ursprünglich nur das heutige Niederösterreich, später die gesamte Habsburgermonarchie und in. The following is a list of cities and towns in Austria with population of over 10, inhabitants. Capitals of the nine federated states are shown in bold type. Facebook · Twitter · Instagram · YouTube · Website · Website · FANSHOP · EVENT-LOCATION · DEINE MITGLIEDSCHAFT · Harreither Generali Group Gazprom. Austrias. Der älteste Teil Madrids kombiniert die Würde des Königspalasts mit dem volksnahen Geschehen der Plaza Mayor und Umgebung.
Nowadays, products from the dairy cooperative Central Lechera Asturiana are being commercialised all over Spain. The main regional industry in modern times, however, was coal mining and steel production: in the times of Francisco Franco's dictatorship, it was the centre of Spain's steel industry.
The then state-owned ENSIDESA steel company is now part of the privatised Aceralia , now part of the ArcelorMittal Group. The steel industry is now in decline when measured in terms of number of jobs provided, as is the mining.
The reasons for the latter are mainly the high costs of production to extract the coal compared to other regions.
Regional economic growth is below the broader Spanish rate, though in recent years growth in service industries has helped reduce Asturias's high rate of unemployment.
Asturias has benefited extensively since from European Union investment in roads and other essential infrastructure , though there has also been some controversy regarding how these funds are spent, for example, on miners' pensions.
The Gross domestic product GDP of the autonomous community was Asturias has been growing below the Spanish national average since the decline of the mining industry, and grew just 0.
On the plus side, unemployment in Asturias is below the average of Spain; it stood at Eastern Asturias is also easily accessible from Santander Airport.
Recent improvements introduced in the road network permit flying into Santander and later driving into Asturias, which can be entered in less than an hour's drive.
The Irish airline Ryanair operates flights to Santander Airport from Frankfurt Hahn, Liverpool, Dublin, Edinburgh, London Stansted and Rome Ciampino.
The following areas are available for cruise vessels:. These locations allow a high degree of access control, with security guaranteed for both vessels and passengers alike.
The route was cancelled in September Spain's national RENFE rail network also serves Asturias well; trains regularly depart to and from the Spanish interior.
Meanwhile, the FEVE rail company links the centre of the region with Eastern and Western Asturias. Under the Cantabrian Mountains , the Pajares Base Tunnel , is currently [ when?
There is also a comprehensive bus service run by the ALSA company. In modern architecture, the Palacio de Congresos de Oviedo or Modoo was designed by Santiago Calatrava.
Gijon , the biggest city of Asturias, is a coastal city known for cultural and sports events, [ citation needed ] and a beach tourism centre in northern Spain.
It also is known for the traditional Asturian gastronomy and for being an Asturian cider production spot. Thomas of Canterbury church dating from the 13th century are examples which show the historical patrimony to be found in the city.
The Reconquista and eventual unification of all Spain is therefore said to have started in this very location.
The paleolithic art in the caves of Asturias is declared World Heritage Site with the Paleolithic Art of Northern Spain. Asturias also has examples of industrial heritage as a consequence of its industrial activities in the 19th and 20th centuries.
The Asturian coast: especially the beaches in and around the summer resort of Llanes , the Playa del Silencio near Cudillero fishing village, or the "white" village of Luarca Severo Ochoa hometown.
The Gothic style is not as abundant, but there are good examples of this style, such as the Cathedral of San Salvador in Oviedo.
The Baroque style is more present by means of palace architecture, with such notable examples as the Palace of Camposagrado and Velarde - the latter seat of Museum of Fine Arts of Asturias.
The Baroque style stands out in public civil engineering and bridge tolls Olloniego ; the milestones, the chairs or seats present along the road to Madrid and the resort of Caldas de Priorio Oviedo building.
In , the UNESCO declared the pre-Romanesque monuments and the Cathedral of Oviedo as World Heritage Sites. The purpose of the horreo is to store objects and crops.
With the arrival of maize and the beans, they were endowed with exterior corridors and railings for drying the harvests. Asturias is home to the only architectural work in Spain as well as the largest in Europe of the Brazilian architect and disciple of Le Corbusier ; Oscar Niemeyer : the Oscar Niemeyer International Cultural Centre.
The architectural project was donated to the Principality by the architect, who was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for the Arts , in the XXV edition of these awards.
Niemeyer's project combined several different elements, and projected an open space, a place for education, culture and peace. In the capital of the Principality stands one of the most representative buildings of modern architecture, the Palace of Congresses of Oviedo , by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava , who also awarded the Prince of Asturias of Award for the Arts in Special importance has been placed in recent years on the recovery of industrial heritage through various routes and industrial museums, especially in the central area of the region.
Some of the most famous festivals in Asturias are from the small town of Llanes. These festivals celebrate the important saints and the Virgin Mary adored by the town.
The associations that prepare the festivals have a rivalry between them and each year they try to outdo each other with more impressive shows.
The three most important are the festival of San Roque St. Mary Magdalene held on the 22nd of July. The Magdalena is well known for its impressive march of logs where boys as young as 3 and men carry logs through the town until they reach the end point and start a large bonfire.
Apple groves foster the production of the region's traditional alcoholic drink, a natural cider sidra. Since it is natural and bottled without gas, it produces a weak carbonation, and when Asturian cider is served, it is poured in a particular way, el escanciado : the bottle is held above the head allowing for a long vertical pour, causing the cider to be aerated as it splashes into the glass below.
After drinking most of the content, it is customary to splash a little out onto the ground, as a way to clean the glass of any lees for the next serving.
Traditionally, the same glass is refilled and passed around, with everyone drinking from it in turn. Racecar driver Fernando Alonso is a two-time Formula One world champion, and races with Asturias' flag colours on his helmet.
Football players from Asturias include World Cup winner David Villa as well as Quini , Luis Enrique , Juan Manuel Mata , and Santiago Cazorla , among others.
The music of Asturias is varied. The most characteristic instrument in traditional music is the Asturian bagpipe , or Gaita asturiana , which has a single drone, in common with the traditional bagpipes of other Celtic nations such as Wales and Ireland.
In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in traditional folk music, and several music ensembles have gained regional and international recognition for their ethnomusicological study and presentation of indigenous Asturian music.
Rossen Milanov is the Music Director. Nevertheless, the music has little in common with the region's own folklore.
Another famous piece of classical music more authentically inspired by the Asturian musical heritage is Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov 's Capriccio Espagnol , which prominently features a theme from an alborada , a dance tune traditionally played to celebrate the rising of the sun.
It is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west.
While German is the country's official language ,  many Austrians communicate informally in a variety of Bavarian dialects. Austria initially emerged as a margraviate around and developed into a duchy and archduchy.
In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg — one of the most influential royal dynasties in history.
As an archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Early in the 19th century, Austria established its own empire , which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation , but pursued its own course independently of the other German states following its defeat in the Austro-Prussian War in In , in compromise with Hungary , the Austria-Hungary Dual Monarchy was established.
Austria was involved in World War I under Emperor Franz Joseph following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand , the presumptive successor to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
After the defeat and the dissolution of the Monarchy, the Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed with the intent of union with Germany , but the Allied Powers did not support the new state and it remained unrecognized.
In the First Austrian Republic became the legal successor of Austria. In , the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler , who became the Chancellor of the German Reich , achieved the annexation of Austria by the Anschluss.
Following the defeat of Nazi Germany in and an extended period of Allied occupation , Austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the Second Republic.
Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a directly elected Federal President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of the federal government.
Major urban areas of Austria include Vienna , Graz , Linz , Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by GDP per capita terms.
The country has achieved a high standard of living and in was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. Vienna consistently ranks in the top internationally on quality-of-life indicators.
The Second Republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in Austria has been a member of the United Nations since and  joined the European Union in Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is Ostravica 'sharp mountain' , because it is very steep on both sides.
Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century.
The Central European land that is now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province.
Present-day Petronell- Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50, people for nearly years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians , Slavs and Avars.
The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in In , the Babenbergs also acquired the Duchy of Styria.
With the death of Frederick II in , the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished. As a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia effectively assumed control of the duchies of Austria, Styria, and Carinthia.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria.
In , Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund.
Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception.
The Habsburgs began also to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In , Archduke Maximilian , only son of Emperor Frederick III , married the heiress Maria of Burgundy , thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times,  of which some are cited as "burning, pillaging, and taking thousands of slaves".
During the long reign of Leopold I — and following the successful defence of Vienna against the Turks in under the command of the King of Poland, John III Sobieski ,  a series of campaigns resulted in bringing most of Hungary to Austrian control by the Treaty of Karlowitz in Emperor Charles VI relinquished many of the gains the empire made in the previous years, largely due to his apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg.
Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir.
With the rise of Prussia , the Austrian—Prussian dualism began in Germany. Austria participated, together with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland in and Austria later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France , at the beginning highly unsuccessfully, with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon, meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire in Two years earlier,  the Empire of Austria was founded.
From to , the Austrians had suffered , casualties. It emerged from the Congress of Vienna in as one of the continent's four dominant powers and a recognised great power.
The same year, the German Confederation Deutscher Bund was founded under the presidency of Austria. Because of unsolved social, political, and national conflicts, the German lands were shaken by the revolutions aiming to create a unified Germany.
The various different possibilities for a united Germany were: a Greater Germany , or a Greater Austria or just the German Confederation without Austria at all.
As Austria was not willing to relinquish its German-speaking territories to what would become the German Empire of , the crown of the newly formed empire was offered to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV.
In , Austria and Prussia fought together against Denmark and secured the independence from Denmark of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.
As they could not agree on how the two duchies should be administered, though, they fought the Austro-Prussian War in Defeated by Prussia in the Battle of Königgrätz ,  Austria had to leave the German Confederation and no longer took part in German politics.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of , the Ausgleich , provided for a dual sovereignty, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary , under Franz Joseph I.
As a result, ruling Austria—Hungary became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements, requiring considerable reliance on an expanded secret police.
Yet, the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: for example, the Reichsgesetzblatt , publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania , was issued in eight languages; and all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices.
Many Austrians of all different social circles such as Georg Ritter von Schönerer promoted strong pan-Germanism in hope of reinforcing an ethnic German identity and the annexation of Austria to Germany.
Although Bismarck's policies excluded Austria and the German Austrians from Germany, many Austrian pan-Germans idolized him and wore blue cornflowers, known to be the favourite flower of German Emperor William I , in their buttonholes, along with cockades in the German national colours black, red, and yellow , although they were both temporarily banned in Austrian schools, as a way to show discontent towards the multi-ethnic empire.
Austria's exclusion from Germany caused many Austrians a problem with their national identity and prompted the Social Democratic Leader Otto Bauer to state that it was "the conflict between our Austrian and German character".
Many Austrians, especially those involved with the pan-German movements, desired a reinforcement of an ethnic German identity and hoped that the empire would collapse, which would allow an annexation of Austria with Germany.
A lot of Austrian pan-German nationalists protested passionately against minister-president Kasimir Count Badeni 's language decree of , which made German and Czech co-official languages in Bohemia and required new government officials to be fluent in both languages.
This meant in practice that the civil service would almost exclusively hire Czechs, because most middle-class Czechs spoke German but not the other way around.
The support of ultramontane Catholic politicians and clergy for this reform triggered the launch of the " Away from Rome " German : Los-von-Rom movement, which was initiated by supporters of Schönerer and called on "German" Christians to leave the Roman Catholic Church.
As the Second Constitutional Era began in the Ottoman Empire , Austria-Hungary took the opportunity to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina in Over one million Austro-Hungarian soldiers died in World War I.
On 21 October , the elected German members of the Reichsrat parliament of Imperial Austria met in Vienna as the Provisional National Assembly for German Austria Provisorische Nationalversammlung für Deutschösterreich.
On 30 October the assembly founded the Republic of German Austria by appointing a government, called Staatsrat. This new government was invited by the Emperor to take part in the decision on the planned armistice with Italy, but refrained from this business.
This left the responsibility for the end of the war, on 3 November , solely to the emperor and his government. On 11 November, the emperor, advised by ministers of the old and the new governments, declared he would not take part in state business any more; on 12 November, German Austria, by law, declared itself to be a democratic republic and part of the new German republic.
The constitution, renaming the Staatsrat as Bundesregierung federal government and Nationalversammlung as Nationalrat national council was passed on 10 November The Treaty of Saint-Germain of for Hungary the Treaty of Trianon of confirmed and consolidated the new order of Central Europe which to a great extent had been established in November , creating new states and altering others.
The German-speaking parts of Austria which had been part of Austria-Hungary were reduced to a rump state named The Republic of German-Austria German: Republik Deutschösterreich.
On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German-Austria is a democratic republic" Article 1 and "German-Austria is an integral part of the German reich" Article 2.
Over 3 million German-speaking Austrians found themselves living outside the new Austrian Republic as minorities in the newly formed or enlarged states of Czechoslovakia , Yugoslavia , Hungary , and Italy.
The status of German Bohemia Sudetenland later played a role in sparking the Second World War. The status of South Tyrol was a lingering problem between Austria and Italy until it was officially settled by the s with a great degree of autonomy being granted to it by the Italian national government.
Between and , Austria was known as the State of German Austria Staat Deutschösterreich. Not only did the Entente powers forbid German Austria to unite with Germany, but they also rejected the name German Austria in the peace treaty to be signed; it was, therefore, changed to Republic of Austria in late The border between Austria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes later Yugoslavia was settled with the Carinthian Plebiscite in October and allocated the major part of the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Crownland of Carinthia to Austria.
This set the border on the Karawanken mountain range, with many Slovenes remaining in Austria. After the war, inflation began to devalue the Krone, which was still Austria's currency.
In autumn , Austria was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations. The loan meant that Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations.
In , the Schilling was introduced, replacing the Krone at a rate of 10, Later, it was nicknamed the "Alpine dollar" due to its stability.
From to , the economy enjoyed a short high before nearly crashing [ clarification needed ] after Black Tuesday. The First Austrian Republic lasted until , when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss , using what he called "self-switch-off of Parliament" , established an autocratic regime tending towards Italian fascism.
In February , several members of the Schutzbund were executed,  the Social Democratic party was outlawed, and many of its members were imprisoned or emigrated.
His successor Kurt Schuschnigg acknowledged Austria as a "German state" and that Austrians were "better Germans" but wished for Austria to remain independent.
On 12 March , Austrian Nazis took over government, while German troops occupied the country, which prevented Schuschnigg's referendum from taking place.
Two days later, Austrian-born Hitler announced what he called the "reunification" of his home country with the "rest of the German Reich " on Vienna's Heldenplatz.
He established a plebiscite confirming the union with Germany in April Parliamentary elections were held in Germany including recently annexed Austria on 10 April They were the final elections to the Reichstag during Nazi rule, and took the form of a single-question referendum asking whether voters approved of a single Nazi-party list for the member Reichstag, as well as the recent annexation of Austria the Anschluss.
Jews and Gypsies were not allowed to vote. In the case of Austria, Adolf Hitler's native soil, On 12 March , Austria was annexed to the Third Reich and ceased to exist as an independent country.
The Aryanisation of the wealth of Jewish Austrians started immediately in mid-March, with a so-called "wild" i. The Nazis renamed Austria in as " Ostmark "  until , when it was again renamed and called "Alpine and Danubian Gaue" Alpen-und Donau-Reichsgaue.
The invading Allied powers, in particular the Americans, planned for the supposed "Alpine Fortress Operation" of a national redoubt, that was largely to have taken place on Austrian soil in the mountains of the Eastern Alps.
However, it never materialised because of the rapid collapse of the Reich. Karl Renner and Adolf Schärf Socialist Party of Austria [Social Democrats and Revolutionary Socialists] , Leopold Kunschak Austria's People's Party [former Christian Social People's Party] , and Johann Koplenig Communist Party of Austria declared Austria's secession from the Third Reich by the Declaration of Independence on 27 April and set up a provisional government in Vienna under state Chancellor Renner the same day, with the approval of the victorious Red Army and backed by Joseph Stalin.
At the end of April, most of western and southern Austria were still under Nazi rule. On 1 May , the federal constitution of , which had been terminated by dictator Dollfuss on 1 May , was declared valid again.
Total military deaths from to are estimated at , Thousands of Austrians had taken part in serious Nazi crimes hundreds of thousands died in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp alone , a fact officially recognised by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky in Much like Germany , Austria was divided into American, British, French, and Soviet zones and governed by the Allied Commission for Austria.
Thus, the creation of a separate Western Austrian government and the division of the country was avoided. Austria, in general, was treated as though it had been originally invaded by Germany and liberated by the Allies.
On 15 May , after talks which lasted for years and were influenced by the Cold War , Austria regained full independence by concluding the Austrian State Treaty with the Four Occupying Powers.
On 26 October , after all occupation troops had left, Austria declared its "permanent neutrality" by an act of parliament. The political system of the Second Republic is based on the constitution of and , which was reintroduced in The system came to be characterised by Proporz , meaning that most posts of political importance were split evenly between members of the Social Democratic Party of Austria SPÖ and the Austrian People's Party ÖVP.
Since , governing via a single-party government has occurred twice: — ÖVP and — SPÖ. During all other legislative periods, either a grand coalition of SPÖ and ÖVP or a "small coalition" one of these two and a smaller party ruled the country.
Kurt Waldheim , a Wehrmacht officer in the Second World War accused of war crimes , was elected President of Austria from to Following a referendum in , at which consent reached a majority of two-thirds, the country became a member of the European Union on 1 January The major parties SPÖ and ÖVP have contrary opinions about the future status of Austria's military nonalignment: While the SPÖ in public supports a neutral role, the ÖVP argues for stronger integration into the EU's security policy; even a future NATO membership is not ruled out by some ÖVP politicians ex.
Dr Werner Fasslabend ÖVP in In reality, Austria is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy , participates in peacekeeping and peace creating tasks, and has become a member of NATO 's "Partnership for Peace"; the constitution has been amended accordingly.
Since Liechtenstein joined the Schengen Area in , none of Austria's neighbouring countries performs border controls towards it anymore.
The Parliament of Austria is located in Vienna , the country's capital and most populous city. Austria became a federal , representative democratic republic through the Federal Constitution of The political system of the Second Republic with its nine states is based on the constitution of , amended in , which was reenacted on 1 May The head of state is the Federal President Bundespräsident , who is directly elected by popular majority vote, with a run-off between the top-scoring candidates if necessary.
The head of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor Bundeskanzler , who is selected by the President and tasked with forming a government based on the partisan composition of the lower house of parliament.
The government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament, the Nationalrat.
Voting for the Federal President and for the Parliament used to be compulsory in Austria, but this was abolished in steps from to Austria's parliament consists of two chambers.
The composition of the Nationalrat seats is determined every five years or whenever the Nationalrat has been dissolved by the federal president on a motion by the federal chancellor, or by Nationalrat itself by a general election in which every citizen over the age of 16 has the right to vote.
The voting age was lowered from 18 in The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the legislative process in Austria. However, the upper house of parliament, the Bundesrat , has a limited right of veto the Nationalrat can—in almost all cases—ultimately pass the respective bill by voting a second time; this is referred to as a Beharrungsbeschluss , lit.
While the bicameral Parliament and the Government constitute the legislative and executive branches, respectively, the courts are the third branch of Austrian state powers.
The Constitutional Court Verfassungsgerichtshof exerts considerable influence on the political system because of its power to invalidate legislation and ordinances that are not in compliance with the constitution.
Since , the European Court of Justice may overrule Austrian decisions in all matters defined in laws of the European Union. Austria also implements the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights , since the European Convention on Human Rights is part of the Austrian constitution.
In January the People's Party and SPÖ formed a grand coalition with the social democrat Alfred Gusenbauer as Chancellor.
This coalition broke up in June They formed a coalition with Werner Faymann from the Social Democrats as Chancellor. After the Grand Coalition broke in Spring a snap election was proclaimed for October The Austrian People's Party ÖVP with its new young leader Sebastian Kurz emerged as the largest party in the National Council, winning The Social Democratic Party SPÖ finished second with 52 seats and NEOS finished fourth with 10 seats 5.
The ÖVP decided to form a coalition with the FPÖ. The new government between the centre-right wing and the right-wing populist party under the new chancellor Sebastian Kurz was sworn in on 18 December , but the coalition government later collapsed and new elections were called for 29 September The elections lead to another landslide victory The Austrian State Treaty ended the occupation of Austria following World War II and recognised Austria as an independent and sovereign state.
On 26 October , the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional article in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality.
Austria began to reassess its definition of neutrality following the fall of the Soviet Union , granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in , and since , it has developed participation in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy.
Also in , it joined NATO's Partnership for Peace although it was careful to do so only after Russia joined and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia.
Meanwhile, the only part of the Constitutional Law on Neutrality of still fully valid is to not allow foreign military bases in Austria.
Austria attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organisations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSCE.
As an OSCE-participating State, Austria's international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U. Helsinki Commission.
The manpower of the Austrian Armed Forces German: Bundesheer mainly relies on conscription. Both males and females at the age of sixteen are eligible for voluntary service.
Since , women volunteers have been allowed to become professional soldiers. The main sectors of the Bundesheer are Joint Forces Streitkräfteführungskommando, SKFüKdo which consist of Land Forces Landstreitkräfte , Air Forces Luftstreitkräfte , International Missions Internationale Einsätze and Special Forces Spezialeinsatzkräfte , next to Joint Mission Support Command Kommando Einsatzunterstützung; KdoEU and Joint Command Support Centre Führungsunterstützungszentrum; FüUZ.
Austria is a landlocked country and has no navy. In , Austria's defence expenditures corresponded to approximately 0.
The Army currently has about 26,  soldiers, of whom about 12, are conscripts. As head of state, Austrian President is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the Bundesheer.
Since the end of the Cold War , and more importantly the removal of the former heavily guarded " Iron Curtain " separating Austria and its Eastern Bloc neighbours Hungary and former Czechoslovakia , the Austrian military has been assisting Austrian border guards in trying to prevent border crossings by illegal immigrants.
This assistance came to an end when Hungary and Slovakia joined the EU Schengen Area in , for all intents and purposes abolishing "internal" border controls between treaty states.
Some politicians have called for a prolongation of this mission, but the legality of this is heavily disputed. In accordance with the Austrian constitution, armed forces may only be deployed in a limited number of cases, mainly to defend the country and aid in cases of national emergency, such as in the wake of natural disasters.
Salzburg, Austria. Innsbruck, Austria. Seefeld in Tirol, Austria. Zell am See, Austria. Kitzbuhel, Austria. Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Austria. Graz, Austria.
Anton am Arlberg, Austria. Neustift im Stubaital, Austria. Essential Austria. Go rest. A mix of the charming, modern, and tried and true.
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These two ranges are separated by a central range that is softer in form and outline and composed of crystalline rocks.
The Alpine landscape offers a complex geologic and topographical pattern, with the highest elevation—the Grossglockner 12, feet [3, metres] —rising toward the west.
The western Austrian Länder states of Vorarlberg , Tirol , and Salzburg are characterized by the majestic mountains and magnificent scenery of the high Alps.
This high Alpine character also extends to the western part of the state of Kärnten Carinthia , to the Salzkammergut region of central Austria, and to the Alpine blocks of the state of Steiermark Styria.
North of the massive Alpine spur lies a hilly subalpine region, stretching between the northern Alps and the Danube and encompassing the northern portion of the state of Oberösterreich Upper Austria.
To the north of the river is a richly wooded foothill area that includes a portion of the Bohemian Massif , which extends across the Czech border into the state of Niederösterreich Lower Austria.
This part of Austria is furrowed by many valleys that for centuries served as passageways leading to the east and southeast of Europe and even—in the case of medieval pilgrims and Crusaders—to the Holy Land.
The lowland area east of Vienna, together with the northern part of the state of Burgenland , may be regarded as a western extension of the Little Alföld Little Hungarian Plain.
Austria is a land of lakes, many of them a legacy of the Pleistocene Epoch i. The largest lakes—lying partly in the territory of neighbouring countries—are Lake Constance Bodensee in the west and the marshy Neusiedler Lake Neusiedlersee in the east.
Nearly all Austrian territory drains into the Danube River system. The main watershed between the Black Sea and the North Sea runs across northern Austria, in some places lying only about 22 miles 35 km from the Danube, while to the west the watershed between the Danube and the river systems emptying into the Atlantic and the Mediterranean coincides with the western political boundary of Austria.About Austria. As home to majestic mountains, opulent palaces, and high culture, Austria's attractions are classically sumptuous and enduring. But beyond the waltzes, the strudels, the alpine summits, and Habsburg architecture, its modern cities are proof of just how easily Austria . However, due to a rise in the number of mothers in work, primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care. After the war, inflation began to devalue the Krone, which was still Austria's Paranormal Activity Die Gezeichneten Stream. He is generally regarded as one of the Ratsasan conductors of the 20th century, and he was a dominant figure in European classical music from the s until his death. With Franco eventually gaining control of all Spain, Asturias — traditionally linked to the Spanish Crown — was known merely as the "Province of Oviedo" from until Franco's death in As a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia Austrias assumed control of the duchies of Austria, Styria, and Carinthia. Asturias has benefited extensively since from European Austrias investment in roads and other essential infrastructurethough there has also been some controversy regarding how these funds are spent, for example, on miners' Avengers Kinostart. After the events of World War II and NazismAustria as a country has made efforts to develop an Austrian national identity Play Pass Austrias populace, [ citation needed ] and nowadays most do not consider themselves Germans. Bruce Berger Männerherzen Forums. Central Intelligence Agency. Next to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the economy of Austria. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany in and an Externe Festplatte In Dynamischen Datenträger Konvertieren period of Allied occupationAustria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the Second Republic.